In our country, cervical cancers rank 3rd among female gynecological cancers and 8th among general cancers. It is in the 2nd rank in developing countries. Our country statistics currently give the frequency as 14 / 100.000. According to the data of the Ministry of Health, 1290 new cervical cancers are detected each year and 500 women die every year for this reason.
The only cause of cervical cancer is Human Papilloma Virus-HPV (human papilloma virus), HPV is detected in 99.7% of cervical cancers. The wart virus is transmitted only by sexual intercourse. Of the more than 200 HPV types, up to 40 types of genital sites concern new types as time goes on. 15 of the HPV types that concern the genital area are at high risk. These types are cervical, vagina, vulva expressing the external genital organs, intraoral, tongue, lip cancers and anal cancers. HPV types 16 and 18 are responsible for only 75% of cervical cancer.
The possibility of wart virus transmission is known to be at least 50% in healthy women and men throughout life. There are statistical rates up to 90%. In Western societies, women have been shown to encounter viruses at some time in 2/3 of their lives. However, in every person infected by the virus there is no certain route that warts, cancer precursors or cancer will develop. On the contrary, when the general immunity of the human body is high, the defence mechanism is a very strong mechanism. If the virus enters the cell, the infection will usually be self-inflicted without affecting the cell nucleus. However, if it has affected the cell nucleus after it has entered the cell, it can disrupt the genetic structure of the nucleus and cause cancer lesions and cancer. At this point, the general health and immunity of the person, the amount of virus load (increasing in cases such as continuing unprotected relationship with infected partners and increasing the number of partners) and the carcinogenic type of the virus become important.
The area called the transformation zone in the cervix is where the columnar epithelium coming from the uterus and the squamous epithelium from the vagina meet, and the wart virus infects this area. 80-90% of cervical cancers are squamous cell cancers and 10-20% are adenocarcinoma of the cervix. Rarely, the two can be seen together.