Protection from HPV: HPV Vaccine + PAP Smear
The main target in health is to develop health policies for disease prevention, rather than developing methods to treat diseases. As in all areas of preventive medicine, the ways to eliminate the risk should be explained in detail to each person as a right to health.
DNA recombinant vaccines have been developed for protection against human papilloma virus, which is a DNA virus for warts, latent infections, active infections and precancerous lesions and cancers they cause.
There are three different HPV vaccines currently used in the world. One is a quadrivalent vaccine with protection against types 6, 11, 16 and 18, and the other is a bivalent vaccine that protects against types 16 and 18. Bivalent vaccine has not been produced in recent years (since the type of virus it is immunizing is less) is not produced. The nanovalent vaccine, which was licensed in the USA in 2014 and used in many countries (provides immunity against 9 main types), is not yet licensed and available in our country. In our country, quadrivalent vaccine, which provides 100% immunity, is used safely for years for the most common warts, types 6 and 11, and the most common for cervical cancer types 16 and 18.
The ideal application age of vaccines is the group of women whose sexuality has not yet begun. However, with the new data, it has become clear that vaccines are effective and can be made until the age of 46. Vaccination should also be done in the sexually explicit group. In this group, it is necessary to share the protection principles and rates of the vaccine, to determine the patient’s expectations correctly and to recommend the vaccine. Vaccination is also strongly recommended for women who have previously been infected with HPV. If it has not developed immunity to the HPV type it has received before, it may not be protective against that type, but it will prevent the removal of other viral types. Apart from the main types mentioned, the types with which the vaccines cross protect have also extended the protection range considerably.
Quadrivalent vaccine; Available in 0.5 ml disposable syringes. Quadrivalent vaccine is over the age of 12 years 0.-2. Doses are given at 3 and 6 months, and two doses under 12 years of age at 0 and 2 months.
Care must be taken when the vaccine is delivered. However, if the third dose is forgotten after the first two doses, if the doses are completed within one year, the vaccine protocol does not need to start all over again and can be resumed.
Although vaccination is not detected during pregnancy, vaccination is not recommended in pregnancy, but puerperant vaccination is recommended and applied. The vaccine is not a live virus vaccine but it is produced by DNA recombinant technology such as hepatitis vaccines and the area used as antigen is not live virus, but HPV L1 major capsid protein. So virus-like particles are used in production.
The vaccine does not interact with drugs such as painkillers, vitamins, birth control pills, antibiotics, and antidepressants and can be taken together.
They can be made simultaneously with the hepatitis vaccine, but should be applied to separate arms.
There have been no major side effects reported worldwide since the vaccine was first introduced. Under 10% mild fever, slight swelling at the injection site and pain that lasts for a few days are not expected.
In the vaccinated group, PAP smear applications are continued and routine screening programs are not changed.
Vaccine administration reaches effective antibody levels 1 month after the last dose, i.e. 7 months, and 99% seroconversion is detected. After the 7th month, it can now be shared clearly with the patient from whom protection began.
The vaccine does not need dose repetition later, just as with hepatitis vaccines. Because immune memory (immune memory) ensures that antibodies reach a sufficient level when the virus, that is, antigen, is encountered.
The only basic fact that should not be forgotten is that protection from disease is always much easier to face and treat. It is necessary to continue by taking vaccine precautions before the concept of the disease, which is very important in the psychological and socioeconomic aspects, is realized. Treatment is always troublesome and difficult when the disease is diagnosed, especially in the diagnosis of cancer, the journey will always be more difficult. Please, in diseases where protection is possible, especially if it is a huge risk like cancer, vaccinate yourself and your children and do not take risks. Life is too precious to be put at risk.