Sexually Transmitted Diseases

The main way of transmission of sexually transmitted diseases is unprotected sexual intercourse that can be transmitted by anal, oral or vaginal intercourse. The person carrying the infection is not required to have a complaint or finding. Infection can be carried without any symptoms and can be transmitted to the partner by sexual intercourse.


Who are the Risk Groups?

unprotected sex

having more than one partner

people who have previously had a sexually transmitted disease

those who started sexuality at an early age

drug addicts

those who have unsafe and dangerous sexual behaviors

those with lesions or signs in the genital area

Given that sexually transmitted diseases may not produce symptoms and cause complaints, it can be said that everyone who has sex in a sense is actually at risk.


Complaints in Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Generally, it may progress completely in the early period and may not cause any complaints.

The most common complaints we encounter are:

* abnormal vaginal discharge

* abnormal vaginal bleeding

* vaginal itching

* burning or pain in sexual intercourse

* burning and pain in the urination

* There may be herpes in the genital area.


Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Although the complaints or clinical findings may be insufficient, physical examination may be very important, but it is not enough from time to time. For this reason, it is very important to take advantage of laboratory support. Samples taken from vagina and cervix: can be scanned by direct microscopy cultures and PCR, and ELISA can be studied in blood samples.

Let’s review the sexually transmitted diseases one by one:



HIV virus, which is transmitted through sexual intercourse and blood, consumes immune mechanisms and prepares the ground for other opportunistic infections and cancer. It can be transmitted from mother to baby during childbirth.

Fever, sweating, chills, muscle and joint pain, appetite and weight loss, swollen lymph nodes, prolonged sore throat, diarrhea, skin sores and fungal infections can be observed.

Virus scanning can be done with blood, breast milk and vaginal fluid samples. Since other sexually transmitted infections are also common in patients with HIV, they should be investigated.


Human Papilloma Virus

This virus, which can wipe the genital area skin, vagina entrance, vagina and cervix, can exist for years without any findings. Human papilloma virus, mainly transmitted by sexual intercourse, can pass from mother to baby during vaginal delivery.

You can find detailed information on this subject in the human papilloma virus link. https://www.femmeinstitute.com/human-papilloma-virus/



Sexual intercourse, blood transfusion, the contact of infected blood with damaged skin, and hepatitis virus, which can be passed from mother to baby at birth, are a cause of serious health problems with the possibilities of chronic liver infection, cirrhosis and liver cancer.

Loss of appetite, fatigue, flu-like findings, fever, abdominal pain, nausea, dark colour in the urine and yellowing of the skin and eyes may occur.

Especially, blood antibody screening can be done easily.

Protection is the most important step in infections. Increasing the effective use of highly safe hepatitis and human papilloma virus vaccines should be the most basic step in reducing the frequency of infections.



It is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases and one of the most common causes of pelvic infection and infertility in women. It is located in the cervix, the Bartolin glands at the entrance to the vagina and the external urethra. On the birth canal can pass from mother to baby. It may be the cause of conjunctivitis in the baby’s eyes. It can be a common cause of infection in the body. Gonorrhea microbe can form in the joints by blood and swelling and pain in the joints. Joint pain can be mobile.

Infection from infected male to female is 60-90%, while transmission from infected female to male is around 20-40%.

Scented and colourful discharge, fever, abdominal pain, nausea, abnormal vaginal bleeding, pain and burning during intercourse, burning when urinating. It is also often possible that he does not give any findings.

Samples taken from vaginal secretion and blood can be examined.


Herpes Simplex

Herpes virus, which can be transmitted without open wounds, can be transmitted by sexual contact and mouth-saliva. On the way of birth, the baby may bring a particularly risk of herpes conjunctivitis. After herpes virus is infected, it is stored in the spinal nerve roots and can cause infection repeatedly.

The incubation period ranges from 2 days to 3 weeks. Fluid-filled blisters, burning, itching, sores, pain and burning in sexual intercourse, pain and burning when urinating may occur in the mouth area and genital area. The first attack of infestation in herpes is very severe, subsequent attacks will be somewhat calmer.

The diagnosis is quite easy when it is caught early and in typical phase in the examination. It may be a little more difficult in the late period. Looking for antibodies in the blood can also help in the diagnosis, but the antibody screening does not show when the infection was passed, nor does it provide complete separation between mouth and genital infections. Antibodies in the blood do not provide immunity for the person’s future life.

While the Type 1 form of the herpes simplex causes more herpes lesions around the lips, the type 2 form appears as a genital infection.

The anti-viral agents used in the treatment can only be useful in reducing the severity and shortening the duration of the first attack, but the net benefit of antiviral use has not been proven in relapsing attacks. Keeping the infected area dry and clean and the use of epithelial creams will help ensure comfort.

In cases where there is an active herpes lesion and the baby is affected in the mother’s womb during pregnancy, the central nervous system and eyes of the baby may be damaged and face the risk of death after birth. Therefore, the treatment of the baby should be arranged quickly and very actively. In active herpes infection, vaginal delivery should be avoided and caesarean should be preferred. If the disease is not active, caesarean is not necessary.


Chlamidia Trachomatis

It can be transmitted sexually, or it can be passed from mother to baby during childbirth.

Vaginal discharge can cause burning and pain, fever, abdominal pain, nausea and intermediate bleeding while urinating and sexual intercourse. It can also watch without any findings.

When left untreated, pelvic infection, adhesions in the abdomen may increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy and infertility with damage to the tubes. It can lead to these results without causing any complaints. It may increase the risk of preterm birth in an unconscious pregnant woman and the possibility of contagion to the baby at birth can lead to eye infections in the baby.

Other sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhoea should also be screened during diagnosis.

Vaginal discharge can be detected in the sample and blood.


Mycoplasma and Ureoplasma

It is transmitted sexually.

Abnormal vaginal discharge, pain and burning may occur when urinating and sexual intercourse. They can often occur with reproduction in vaginal cultures without causing any complaints. They can be the cause of infection alone or more often with infections such as gardnerella.

It can lead to infection in the urethra, which is the last part of the cervix, vagina and urinary tract in the genital tract. They may be the cause of infertility and ectopic pregnancy, as well as lead to premature birth during pregnancy. They may cause kidney infection and wound infection after surgery.

They can be produced by culture from vaginal secretion.


Trepanoma Palladium (Syphilis)

The frequency of syphilis seen in women with mate or partner is estimated to be 50/100000 on average.

With the increase of AIDS rates, it came to the agenda again and its screening became important.

It can be easily transmitted by sexual intercourse, by taking infected blood products, from the mother to the baby through the placenta and with common injectors used in drug addicts.

Syphilis progresses in the form of stages, and initially there is only ulcer and lymph nodes in the genital area, but it does not cause pain and the majority does not consult a doctor. Findings will disappear spontaneously in 6-8 weeks without treatment. Systemic signs of infection at the latest 6 months after the first infection appear under the name of the secondary syphilis period, which are joint infections, skin rashes. Rarely, liver, kidney inflammation and meningitis can be seen. Lesions called condyloma lata expressing large-based large warts in the genital area and ulcers in the mouth, throat and genital shade may appear. Then the silent period, in which the microbe continues to multiply, begins and the infectious person’s infectiousness gradually decreases.

In 35% of untreated syphilis cases, tertiary syphilis occurs after 10 years. If the person is also infected with AIDS, this period will decrease. Damages will occur in heart diseases, eyes, central nervous system, musculoskeletal system, gums and internal organs.

Culture is not very useful in diagnosis and the easiest diagnostic method is antigen and antibody screening in the blood sample taken. If the lesion sample is fresh, trepanoma pallidum can be observed under a fluorescent microscope. In case of suspicion of meningitis, the sample taken from the cerebrospinal fluid can be studied with a serological tester.

In treatment, antibiotics are used at every stage of syphilis and are followed by antigen titres in blood samples that respond to the antibiotic.

Trichomonas Vaginalis

Trichomonas infestation is described in detail in the vaginitis section. Please visit the relevant link. Http://www.femmeinstitute.com/vaginitler/